ASCAP
The American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers: a non-profit Writer Publisher Membership Performing Rights Society operating in the USA and governed by its members

Audio Visual
This refers to an intended use of Stock Music. Audio Visual can refer to a film, or an audio-only production

Background Music
Music used (other than as feature or theme music) that creates mood and supports the spoken dialogue of a radio program or visual action of an audio/visual work

Blanket License
A synchronization fee to cover multiple usage of Stock Music in multiple productions created over a given time period within a defined territory and for a specified media

BMI
Broadcast Music Incorporated: a non-profit Performing Rights Society operating in the USA. Formed by broadcasters as an alternate choice from ASCAP

Bootlegging
Unauthorized recording and selling of a song or music recording

BPM
This acronym stands for "beats per minute" and is a measure of Stock Music tempo

Buyout Music Library
A Stock Music library that sells CDs to a producer and does not require Stock Music usage reports or blanket licensing - the Stock Music on the CDs can be used on an unlimited basis provided that the music is not re-distributed

Catalog
A collection of Stock Music tracks, songs and/or recordings

Clearance
Clearance refers to the intended use of Stock Music. Clearance generally defines the media and/or territory in which the final production will be exploited.

Composition
A copyrighted music track, song or theme

Copyright
The exclusive right, granted by law for a stated period, usually until 70 years after the death of the surviving author of the work, to make, dispose of, and otherwise control copies of literary, musical, dramatic, pictorial and other copyrightable works. The exclusive right is set forth in the 1976 Copyright Act Section 106

Cue Sheet
A listing of the music used in a television program or motion picture by title, composer, publisher, timing and type of usage (e.g., background, feature, theme), usually prepared by the producer of the program or film

Delivery
The method of sending Stock Music to the end user or customer

Direct License
In reference to performing rights, a license obtained by a music user directly from the copyright owner allowing the user to publicly perform the licensed work

Encryption
A technological method of locking and limiting the use of a song or track in a Stock Music library

General Agreement
An understanding put in place that governs a licensee’s obligation to report Stock Music being used on a Needledrop basis

Grand Performance Right
A staged musical performance of a complete composition such as an aria from an opera or scene from a play. Such rights require a direct performance license from the copyright holder and are not in the jurisdiction of the Performing Rights Societies

Imaging Elements
Distinctive sound bites that create a mood, feeling or statement (also known as Production Elements)

Lead Sheet
A hand-made (usually) reproduction on paper of a newly-written song

License
A license is a grant to a "user" permitting use of a copyright for any of the following: Mechanical Rights (records, tapes, CDs), Non-Dramatic Performance Rights (the public performance of a song over radio or TV, or at a club, hotel or concerts), Grand Rights (dramatic performance of a musical work, musical comedy, play, opera, operetta, or ballet), Synchronization Rights (the use of a musical composition on the soundtrack of an audio/visual work for theatrical exhibition or television), Print Rights (sheet music, folios, songbooks or other printed editions - the grant is usually made for a specified period of time and for a designated territory, or Commercial Rights (the use of a musical composition as part of an advertisement)

License Application
A request to license the use of Stock Music, that generally applies to a Needledrop license. A completed application will generally provide information on how the music is used and what form of media will be presenting the final production.

Licensed Library
A Stock Music library that requires reporting of individual usage of tracks (Needledrop License) or a periodic license (Blanket)

Licensee
The party to whom a license for the use of Stock Music is granted.
Licensor
The party who grants a license for use of Stock Music

MCPS
The Mechanical Copyright Protection Society – A society that administers mechanical and synchronization licensing for publishers and Stock Music library owners in the United Kingdom

Mechanical License
The license issued by a publisher or his agent, usually to a record company, granting the record company the right to record and release a specific composition at an agreed-upon fee per unit manufactured and sold

Media
The method of reaching an intended audience (Radio, TV, Cable)

Needle Drop
A synchronization license for a specific use of Stock Music within a given film or audio production. Stock Music was originally delivered on vinyl. The term comes from dropping a needle onto the record to incorporate the track into a production

Non-Broadcast
A production that is intended to be used without use of broadcast airwaves

Per-Program License
A license agreement available for broadcasters from a performing rights organization in lieu of a blanket license. A per-program license bases its fee upon revenues from only those programs using music licensed by that organization

Performing Rights Society
An organization representing performing rights of publishers and writers worldwide through reciprocal agreements with performing rights societies in other countries

Piracy
Unauthorized copying of a record, tape or compact disc

PRS
The Performing Right Society - PRS collects licence fees for the public performance and broadcast of musical works in the United Kingdom and distributes this money to its members - writers and publishers of music

Public Domain
Refers to the status of a work having no copyright protection and, therefore, belonging to the world. When a work is "in" or has "fallen into" public domain, it means that the lead sheet is available for unrestricted use by anyone. Permission and/or payment are not required for the use of the lead sheet (for instance, you can hire an orchestra and record your own version of a Public Domain song), however, existing recordings of a Public Domain work are not free to use. They belong to the producer of the recording. Except with respect to certain foreign-originated works eligible for restoration of copyright, once a work falls into the public domain ("PD"), it can never be recaptured by the owner

Publisher
A person or company that publishes and exploits songs, scores or compositions, usually acquired from the author via an assignment of copyright

Royalty Free Music Library
A Stock Music library that sells CDs to a producer and does not require Stock Music usage reports or blanket licensing - the Stock Music on the CDs can be used on an unlimited basis provided that the music is not re-distributed

Sampling
When sound bytes are removed electronically from a master recording and through technological imitation placed within the context of another composition. The length of the bytes can be limitless and can contain lyric and music in combination or in part from any segment of the score. Depending upon the length of the bytes and how they are used, unauthorized sampling could be held to be a copyright infringement of the sound recording from which they were taken and from the musical work they first appeared in

Score
The music that is used in synchronization with an audio/visual work, or the body of music composed for a dramatic-musical work

SOCAN
SOCAN is the Canadian copyright collective for the public performance of musical works, administering the performing rights of its members (composers, lyricists, songwriters and their publishers) and those of affiliated international societies by licensing the use of their music in Canada

Sound Effect
A single isolated recording of either an everyday (real) sound, a specialty (fantasy) sound, or a background ambience track

Stock Music Library
A collection of musical compositions that are licensed by the publisher or administrator for use as background, theme, or score music, on radio, broadcast and cable television, films, or video productions

Sub-Publishing
A contractual arrangement between an original publisher of a song and a foreign publisher to handle the exploitation, licensing and collection for the song in the foreign publisher’s territory

Synchronization Right
The exclusive right of a copyright owner, granted by the Copyright Act, to authorize the recording of a musical work onto the soundtrack of an audio/visual work. The song is synchronized with images on the screen, hence the name

Watermarking
A technological method of identifying Stock Music by imbedding an ownership code within a recording